General As with other antibacterial preparations, use of this product may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms, including yeast and fungi. If the infection is not improved after one week of treatment, cultures should be obtained to guide further treatment. If otorrhea persists after a full course of therapy, or if two or more episodes of otorrhea occur within six months, further evaluation is recommended to exclude an underlying condition such as cholesteatoma, foreign body, or a tumor. The systemic administration of quinolones, including ciprofloxacin at doses much higher than given or absorbed by the otic route, has led to lesions or erosions of the cartilage in weight-bearing joints and other signs of arthropathy in immature animals of various species. Guinea pigs dosed in the middle ear with CIPRODEX® (ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone ) Otic for one month exhibited no drug-related structural or functional changes of the cochlear hair cells and no lesions in the ossicles. CIPRODEX® (ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone ) Otic was also shown to lack dermal sensitizing potential in the guinea pig when tested according to the method of Buehler. No signs of local irritation were found when CIPRODEX® (ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone ) Otic was applied topically in the rabbit eye. Information for Patients For otic use only. (This product is not approved for use in the eye.) Warm the bottle in your hand for one to two minutes prior to use and shake well immediately before using. Avoid contaminating the tip with material from the ear, fingers, or other sources. Protect from light. If rash or allergic reaction occurs, discontinue use immediately and contact your physician. It is very important to use the ear drops for as long as the doctor has instructed, even if the symptoms improve. Discard unused portion after therapy is completed. Acute Otitis Media in pediatric patients with tympanostomy tubes Prior to administration of CIPRODEX® (ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone ) Otic in patients (6 months and older) with acute otitis media through tympanostomy tubes, the suspension should be warmed by holding the bottle in the hand for one or two minutes to avoid dizziness which may result from the instillation of a cold suspension. The patient should lie with the affected ear upward, and then the drops should be instilled. The tragus should then be pumped 5 times by pushing inward to facilitate penetration of the drops into the middle ear. This position should be maintained for 60 seconds. Repeat, if necessary, for the opposite ear (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Acute Otitis Externa Prior to administration of CIPRODEX® (ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone ) Otic in patients with acute otitis externa, the suspension should be warmed by holding the bottle in the hand for one or two minutes to avoid dizziness which may result from the instillation of a cold suspension. The patient should lie with the affected ear upward, and then the drops should be instilled. This position should be maintained for 60 seconds to facilitate penetration of the drops into the ear canal. Repeat, if necessary, for the opposite ear (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility Long-term carcinogenicity studies in mice and rats have been completed for ciprofloxacin. After daily oral doses of 750 mg/kg (mice) and 250 mg/kg (rats) were administered for up to 2 years, there was no evidence that ciprofloxacin had any carcinogenic or tumorigenic effects in these species. No long term studies of CIPRODEX® (ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone ) Otic have been performed to evaluate carcinogenic potential. Eight in vitro mutagenicity tests have been conducted with ciprofloxacin, and the test results are listed below: Salmonella/Microsome Test (Negative) E. coli DNA Repair Assay (Negative) Mouse Lymphoma Cell Forward Mutation Assay (Positive) Chinese Hamster V79 Cell HGPRT Test (Negative) Syrian Hamster Embryo Cell Transformation Assay (Negative) Saccharomyces cerevisiae Point Mutation Assay (Negative) Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mitotic Crossover and Gene Conversion Assay (Negative) Rat Hepatocyte DNA Repair Assay (Positive) Thus, 2 of the 8 tests were positive, but results of the following 3 in vivo test systems gave negative results: Rat Hepatocyte DNA Repair Assay Micronucleus Test (Mice) Dominant Lethal Test (Mice) Fertility studies performed in rats at oral doses of ciprofloxacin up to 100 mg/kg/day revealed no evidence of impairment. This would be over 100 times the maximum recommended clinical dose of ototopical ciprofloxacin based upon body surface area, assuming total absorption of ciprofloxacin from the ear of a patient treated with CIPRODEX® (ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone ) Otic twice per day according to label directions. Long term studies have not been performed to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of topical otic dexamethasone. Dexamethasone has been tested for in vitro and in vivo genotoxic potential and shown to be positive in the following assays; chromosomal aberrations, sister-chromatid exchange in human lymphocytes and micronuclei and sister-chromatid exchanges in mouse bone marrow. However, the Ames/Salmonella assay, both with and without S9 mix, did not show any increase in His+ revertants. The effect of dexamethasone on fertility has not been investigated following topical otic application. However, the lowest toxic dose of dexamethasone identified following topical dermal application was 1.802 mg/kg in a 26-week study in male rats and resulted in changes to the testes, epididymis, sperm duct, prostate, seminal vessicle, Cowper's gland and accessory glands. The relevance of this study for short term topical otic use is unknown. Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects. Pregnancy Category C Reproduction studies have been performed in rats and mice using oral doses of up to 100 mg/kg and IV doses up to 30 mg/kg and have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus as a result of ciprofloxacin. In rabbits, ciprofloxacin (30 and 100 mg/kg orally) produced gastrointestinal disturbances resulting in maternal weight loss and an increased incidence of abortion, but no teratogenicity was observed at either dose. After intravenous administration of doses up to 20 mg/kg, no maternal toxicity was produced in the rabbit, and no embryotoxicity or teratogenicity was observed. Corticosteroids are generally teratogenic in laboratory animals when administered systemically at relatively low dosage levels. The more potent corticosteroids have been shown to be teratogenic after dermal application in laboratory animals. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with CIPRODEX® (ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone ) Otic. No adequate and well controlled studies have been performed in pregnant women. Caution should be exercised when CIPRODEX® (ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone ) Otic is used by a pregnant woman. Nursing Mothers Ciprofloxacin and corticosteroids, as a class, appear in milk following oral administration. Dexamethasone in breast milk could suppress growth, interfere with endogenous corticosteroid production, or cause other untoward effects. It is not known whether topical otic administration of ciprofloxacin or dexamethasone could result in sufficient systemic absorption to produce detectable quantities in human milk. Because of the potential for unwanted effects in nursing infants, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. Pediatric Use The safety and efficacy of CIPRODEX® (ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone ) Otic have been established in pediatric patients 6 months and older (937 patients) in adequate and well-controlled clinical trials. Although no data are available on patients less than age 6 months, there are no known safety concerns or differences in the disease process in this population that would preclude use of this product. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.) No clinically relevant changes in hearing function were observed in 69 pediatric patients (age 4 to 12 years) treated with CIPRODEX (ciprofloxacin and dexamethasone ) ® Otic and tested for audiometric parameters.Last reviewed on RxList: 8/17/2007
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.