Tendinopathy And Tendon Rupture Fluoroquinolones, including CIPRO IV, are associated with an increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture in all ages. This adverse reaction most frequently involves the Achilles tendon, and rupture of the Achilles tendon may require surgical repair. Tendinitis and tendon rupture in the rotator cuff (the shoulder), the hand, the biceps, the thumb, and other tendon sites have also been reported. The risk of developing fluoroquinolone-associated tendinitis and tendon rupture is further increased in older patients usually over 60 years of age, in patients taking corticosteroid drugs, and in patients with kidney, heart or lung transplants. Factors, in addition to age and corticosteroid use, that may independently increase the risk of tendon rupture include strenuous physical activity, renal failure, and previous tendon disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. Tendinitis and tendon rupture have also occurred in patients taking fluoroquinolones who do not have the above risk factors. Inflammation and tendon rupture can occur, sometimes bilaterally, even within the first 48 hours, during or after completion of therapy; cases occurring up to several months after completion of therapy have been reported. CIPRO IV should be used with caution in patients with a history of tendon disorders. CIPRO IV should be discontinued if the patient experiences pain, swelling, inflammation or rupture of a tendon. [See ADVERSE REACTIONS] Exacerbation Of Myasthenia Gravis Fluoroquinolones, including CIPRO IV, have neuromuscular blocking activity and may exacerbate muscle weakness in persons with myasthenia gravis. Postmarketing serious adverse events, including deaths and requirement for ventilatory support, have been associated with fluoroquinolone use in persons with myasthenia gravis. Avoid CIPRO in patients with known history of myasthenia gravis. [See ADVERSE REACTIONS] Hypersensitivity Reactions Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions, some following the first dose, have been reported in patients receiving quinolone therapy, including CIPRO IV. Some reactions were accompanied by cardiovascular collapse, loss of consciousness, tingling, pharyngeal or facial edema, dyspnea, urticaria, and itching. Only a few patients had a history of hypersensitivity reactions. Serious anaphylactic reactions require immediate emergency treatment with epinephrine and other resuscitation measures, including oxygen, intravenous fluids, intravenous antihistamines, corticosteroids, pressor amines, and airway management, including intubation, as indicated. [See ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Other Serious And Sometimes Fatal Reactions Other serious and sometimes fatal events, some due to hypersensitivity, and some due to uncertain etiology, have been reported in patients receiving therapy with quinolones, including CIPRO IV. These events may be severe and generally occur following the administration of multiple doses. Clinical manifestations may include one or more of the following:
- Fever, rash, or severe dermatologic reactions (for example, toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome);
- Vasculitis; arthralgia; myalgia; serum sickness;
- Allergic pneumonitis;
- Interstitial nephritis; acute renal insufficiency or failure;
- Hepatitis; jaundice; acute hepatic necrosis or failure;
- Anemia, including hemolytic and aplastic; thrombocytopenia, including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; leukopenia; agranulocytosis; pancytopenia; and/or other hematologic abnormalities.
Discontinue CIPRO IV immediately at the first appearance of a skin rash, jaundice, or any other sign of hypersensitivity and supportive measures instituted [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Hepatotoxicity Cases of severe hepatotoxicity, including hepatic necrosis, life-threatening hepatic failure, and fatal events, have been reported with CIPRO IV. Acute liver injury is rapid in onset (range 1–39 days), and is often associated with hypersensitivity. The pattern of injury can be hepatocellular, cholestatic or mixed. Most patients with fatal outcomes were older than 55 years old. In the event of any signs and symptoms of hepatitis (such as anorexia, jaundice, dark urine, pruritus, or tender abdomen), discontinue treatment immediately. There can be a temporary increase in transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, or cholestatic jaundice, especially in patients with previous liver damage, who are treated with CIPRO IV. [See ADVERSE REACTIONS] Serious Adverse Reactions With Concomitant Theophylline Serious and fatal reactions have been reported in patients receiving concurrent administration of Intravenous CIPRO and theophylline. These reactions have included cardiac arrest, seizure, status epilepticus, and respiratory failure. Instances of nausea, vomiting, tremor, irritability, or palpitation have also occurred. Although similar serious adverse reactions have been reported in patients receiving theophylline alone, the possibility that these reactions may be potentiated by CIPRO cannot be eliminated. If concomitant use cannot be avoided, monitor serum levels of theophylline and adjust dosage as appropriate. [See DRUG INTERACTIONS] Central Nervous System Effects Convulsions, increased intracranial pressure (including pseudotumor cerebri), and toxic psychosis have been reported in patients receiving fluoroquinolones, including CIPRO IV. CIPRO IV may also cause central nervous system (CNS) events including: nervousness, agitation, insomnia, anxiety, nightmares, paranoia, dizziness, confusion, tremors, hallucinations, depression, and, psychotic reactions have progressed to suicidal ideations/thoughts and self-injurious behavior such as attempted or completed suicide. These reactions may occur following the first dose. Advise patients receiving CIPRO IV to inform their healthcare provider immediately if these reactions occur, discontinue the drug, and institute appropriate care. CIPRO IV, like other fluoroquinolones, is known to trigger seizures or lower the seizure threshold. As with all fluoroquinolones, use CIPRO with caution in epileptic patients and patients with known or suspected CNS disorders that may predispose to seizures or lower the seizure threshold (for example, severe cerebral arteriosclerosis, previous history of convulsion, reduced cerebral blood flow, altered brain structure, or stroke), or in the presence of other risk factors that may predispose to seizures or lower the seizure threshold (for example, certain drug therapy, renal dysfunction). Use CIPRO IV when the benefits of treatment exceed the risks, since these patients are endangered because of possible undesirable CNS side effects. Cases of status epilepticus have been reported. If seizures occur, discontinue CIPRO. [See ADVERSE REACTIONS and DRUG INTERACTIONS] Clostridium Difficile-Associated Diarrhea Clostridium Difficile (C. difficile)-associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including CIPRO IV, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile. C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing isolates of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibacterial use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents. If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibacterial use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibacterial treatment of C. difficile, and institute surgical evaluation as clinically indicated. [See ADVERSE REACTIONS] Peripheral Neuropathy Cases of sensory or sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy affecting small and/or large axons resulting in paresthesias, hypoesthesias, dysesthesias and weakness have been reported in patients receiving fluoroquinolones, including CIPRO IV. Symptoms may occur soon after initiation of CIPRO IV and may be irreversible. Discontinue CIPRO IV immediately if the patient experiences symptoms of peripheral neuropathy including pain, burning, tingling, numbness, and/or weakness, or other alterations in sensations including light touch, pain, temperature, position sense and vibratory sensation, and/or motor strength in order to minimize the development of an irreversible condition. [See ADVERSE REACTIONS] Prolongation Of The QT Interval Some fluoroquinolones, including CIPRO IV, have been associated with prolongation of the QT interval on the electrocardiogram and cases of arrhythmia. Cases of torsade de pointes have been reported during postmarketing surveillance in patients receiving fluoroquinolones, including CIPRO IV. Avoid CIPRO IV in patients with known prolongation of the QT interval, risk factors for QT prolongation or torsade de pointes (for example, congenital long QT syndrome , uncorrected electrolyte imbalance, such as hypokalemia or hypomagnesemia and cardiac disease, such as heart failure, myocardial infarction, or bradycardia), and patients receiving Class IA antiarrhythmic agents (quinidine, procainamide), or Class III antiarrhythmic agents (amiodarone, sotalol), tricyclic antidepressants, macrolides, and antipsychotics. Elderly patients may also be more susceptible to drug-associated effects on the QT interval. [See ADVERSE REACTIONS and Use in Specific Populations] Musculoskeletal Disorders In Pediatric Patients And Arthropathic Effects In Animals CIPRO IV is indicated in pediatric patients (less than 18 years of age) only for cUTI, prevention of inhalational anthrax (post exposure), and plague [see INDICATIONS AND USAGE]. An increased incidence of adverse reactions compared to controls, including reactions related to joints and/or surrounding tissues, has been observed [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. In pre-clinical studies, oral administration of CIPRO IV caused lameness in immature dogs. Histopathological examination of the weight-bearing joints of these dogs revealed permanent lesions of the cartilage. Related quinolone-class drugs also produce erosions of cartilage of weight-bearing joints and other signs of arthropathy in immature animals of various species. [See Use in Specific Populations and Nonclinical Toxicology] Crystalluria Crystals of ciprofloxacin have been observed rarely in the urine of human subjects but more frequently in the urine of laboratory animals, which is usually alkaline [see Nonclinical Toxicology]. Crystalluria related to ciprofloxacin has been reported only rarely in humans because human urine is usually acidic. Avoid alkalinity of the urine in patients receiving CIPRO IV. Hydrate patients well to prevent the formation of highly concentrated urine [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION]. Photosensitivity/Phototoxicity Moderate to severe photosensitivity/phototoxicity reactions, the latter of which may manifest as exaggerated sunburn reactions (for example, burning, erythema, exudation, vesicles, blistering, edema) involving areas exposed to light (typically the face, “V” area of the neck, extensor surfaces of the forearms, dorsa of the hands), can be associated with the use of quinolones, including CIPRO IV, after sun or UV light exposure. Therefore, avoid excessive exposure to these sources of light. Discontinue CIPRO IV if phototoxicity occurs. [See ADVERSE REACTIONS] Development Of Drug Resistant Bacteria Prescribing CIPRO IV in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria. Potential Risks With Concomitant Use Of Drugs Metabolized By Cytochrome P450 1A2 Enzymes Ciprofloxacin is an inhibitor of the hepatic CYP1A2 enzyme pathway. Co-administration of CIPRO IV and other drugs primarily metabolized by CYP1A2 (for example, theophylline, methylxanthines, caffeine, tizanidine, ropinirole, clozapine, olanzapine) results in increased plasma concentrations of the coadministered drug and could lead to clinically significant pharmacodynamic adverse reactions of the coadministered drug. [See DRUG INTERACTIONS and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY] Periodic Assessment Of Organ System Functions As with any potent drug, periodic assessment of organ system functions, including renal, hepatic, and hematopoietic function, is advisable during prolonged therapy. Patient Counseling Information Advise the patient to read the FDA-Approved patient labeling (Medication Guide) Antibacterial Resistance Inform patients that antibacterial drugs including CIPRO IV should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (for example, the common cold). When CIPRO IV prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by CIPRO IV or other antibacterial drugs in the future. Administration Inform patients to drink fluids liberally while taking CIPRO to avoid formation of highly concentrated urine and crystal formation in the urine. Serious and Potentially Serious Adverse Reactions Inform patients of the following serious adverse reactions that have been associated with CIPRO or other fluoroquinolone use:
- Tendon Disorders Instruct patients to contact their healthcare provider if they experience pain, swelling, or inflammation of a tendon, or weakness or inability to use one of their joints; rest and refrain from exercise; and discontinue CIPRO treatment. The risk of severe tendon disorder with fluoroquinolones is higher in older patients usually over 60 years of age, in patients taking corticosteroid drugs, and in patients with kidney, heart or lung transplants.
- Exacerbation of Myasthenia Gravis: Instruct patients to inform their physician of any history of myasthenia gravis. Instruct patients to notify their physician if they experience any symptoms of muscle weakness, including respiratory difficulties.
- Hypersensitivity Reactions: Inform patients that ciprofloxacin can cause hypersensitivity reactions, even following a single dose, and to discontinue the drug at the first sign of a skin rash, hives or other skin reactions, a rapid heartbeat, difficulty in swallowing or breathing, any swelling suggesting angioedema (for example, swelling of the lips, tongue, face, tightness of the throat, hoarseness), or other symptoms of an allergic reaction.
- Hepatotoxicity: Inform patients that severe hepatotoxicity (including acute hepatitis and fatal events) has been reported in patients taking CIPRO IV. Instruct patients to inform their physician if they experience any signs or symptoms of liver injury including: loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, fever, weakness, tiredness, right upper quadrant tenderness, itching, yellowing of the skin and eyes, light colored bowel movements or dark colored urine.
- Convulsions: Inform patients that convulsions have been reported in patients receiving fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin. Instruct patients to notify their physician before taking this drug if they have a history of convulsions.
- Neurologic Adverse Effects (for example, dizziness, lightheadedness, increased intracranial pressure): Inform patients that they should know how they react to CIPRO IV before they operate an automobile or machinery or engage in other activities requiring mental alertness and coordination. Instruct patients to notify their physician if persistent headache with or without blurred vision occurs.
- Diarrhea: Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, Instruct patients to contact their physician as soon as possible.
- Peripheral Neuropathies: Inform patients that peripheral neuropathies have been associated with ciprofloxacin use, symptoms may occur soon after initiation of therapy and may be irreversible If symptoms of peripheral neuropathy including pain, burning, tingling, numbness and/or weakness develop, immediately discontinue CIPRO IV and contact their physician.
- Prolongation of the QT Interval: Instruct patients to inform their physician of any personal or family history of QT prolongation or proarrhythmic conditions such as hypokalemia, bradycardia, or recent myocardial ischemia if they are taking any Class IA (quinidine, procainamide), or Class III (amiodarone, sotalol) antiarrhythmic agents. Instruct patients to notify their physician if they have any symptoms of prolongation of the QT interval, including prolonged heart palpitations or a loss of consciousness.
- Musculoskeletal Disorders in Pediatric Patients: Instruct parents to inform their child's physician if the child has a history of joint-related problems before taking this drug. Inform parents of pediatric patients to notify their child's physician of any joint-related problems that occur during or following ciprofloxacin therapy [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and Use In Specific Populations].
- Tizanidine: Instruct patients not to use ciprofloxacin if they are already taking tizanidine. Ciprofloxacin increases the effects of tizanidine (Zanaflex®).
- Theophylline: Inform patients that ciprofloxacin CIPRO IV may increase the effects of theophylline. Life-threatening CNS effects and arrhythmias can occur. Advise the patients to immediately seek medical help if they experience seizures, palpitations, or difficulty breathing.
- Caffeine: Inform patients that ciprofloxacin may increase the effects of caffeine. There is a possibility of caffeine accumulation when products containing caffeine are consumed while taking quinolones.
- Photosensitivity/Phototoxicity: Inform patients that photosensitivity/phototoxicity has been reported in patients receiving fluoroquinolones. Inform patients to minimize or avoid exposure to natural or artificial sunlight (tanning beds or UVA/B treatment) while taking quinolones. If patients need to be outdoors while using quinolones, instruct them to wear loose-fitting clothes that protect skin from sun exposure and discuss other sun protection measures with their physician. If a sunburn-like reaction or skin eruption occurs, instruct patients to contact their physician.
Drug Interactions Oral Antidiabetic Agents Inform patients that hypoglycemia has been reported when ciprofloxacin and oral antidiabetic agents were co-administered; if low blood sugar occurs with CIPRO IV, instruct them toconsult their physician and that their antibacterial medicine may need to be changed. Anthrax and Plague Studies Inform patients given CIPRO IV for this condition that efficacy studies could not be conducted in humans for ethical and feasibility reasons. Therefore, approval for these conditions was based on efficacy studies conducted in animals. Nonclinical Toxicology Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment Of Fertility A total of 8 in vitro mutagenicity tests have been conducted with ciprofloxacin, and the test results are listed below:
- Salmonella/Microsome Test (Negative)
- E. coli DNA Repair Assay (Negative)
- Mouse Lymphoma Cell Forward Mutation Assay (Positive)
- Chinese Hamster V 79 Cell HGPRT Test (Negative)
- Syrian Hamster Embryo Cell Transformation Assay (Negative)
- Saccharomyces cerevisiae Point Mutation Assay (Negative)
- Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mitotic Crossover and Gene Conversion Assay (Negative)
- Rat Hepatocyte DNA Repair Assay (Positive)
- Thus, 2 of the 8 tests were positive, but results of the following 3 in vivo test systems gave negative results:
- Rat Hepatocyte DNA Repair Assay
- Micronucleus Test (Mice)
- Dominant Lethal Test (Mice)
Long-term carcinogenicity studies in rats and mice resulted in no carcinogenic or tumorigenic effects due to ciprofloxacin at daily oral dose levels up to 250 mg/kg and 750 mg/kg to rats and mice, respectively (approximately 1.7-times and 2.5-times the highest recommended therapeutic dose based upon body surface area, respectively). Results from photo co-carcinogenicity testing indicate that ciprofloxacin does not reduce the time to appearance of UV-induced skin tumors as compared to vehicle control. Hairless (Skh-1) mice were exposed to UVA light for 3.5 hours five times every two weeks for up to 78 weeks while concurrently being administered ciprofloxacin. The time to development of the first skin tumors was 50 weeks in mice treated concomitantly with UVA and ciprofloxacin (mouse dose approximately equal to maximum recommended human dose based upon body surface area), as opposed to 34 weeks when animals were treated with both UVA and vehicle. The times to development of skin tumors ranged from 16 to32 weeks in mice treated concomitantly with UVA and other quinolones.9 In this model, mice treated with ciprofloxacin alone did not develop skin or systemic tumors. There are no data from similar models using pigmented mice and/or fully haired mice. The clinical significance of these findings to humans is unknown. Fertility studies performed in rats at oral doses of ciprofloxacin up to 100 mg/kg (approximately 0.7-times the highest recommended therapeutic dose based upon body surface area) revealed no evidence of impairment. Use In Specific Populations Pregnancy Pregnancy Category C There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. CIPRO IV should not be used during pregnancy unless the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to both fetus and mother. An expert review of published data on experiences with ciprofloxacin use during pregnancy by TERIS–the Teratogen Information System–concluded that therapeutic doses during pregnancy are unlikely to pose a substantial teratogenic risk (quantity and quality of data=fair), but the data are insufficient to state that there is no risk.2 A controlled prospective observational study followed 200 women exposed to fluoroquinolones (52.5% exposed to ciprofloxacin and 68% first trimester exposures) during gestation.3 In utero exposure to fluoroquinolones during embryogenesis was not associated with increased risk of major malformations. The reported rates of major congenital malformations were 2.2% for the fluoroquinolone group and 2.6% for the control group (background incidence of major malformations is 1–5%). Rates of spontaneous abortions, prematurity and low birth weight did not differ between the groups and there were no clinically significant musculoskeletal dysfunctions up to one year of age in the ciprofloxacin exposed children. Another prospective follow-up study reported on 549 pregnancies with fluoroquinolone exposure (93% first trimester exposures).4 There were 70 ciprofloxacin exposures, all within the first trimester. The malformation rates among live-born babies exposed to ciprofloxacin and to fluoroquinolones overall were both within background incidence ranges. No specific patterns of congenital abnormalities were found. The study did not reveal any clear adverse reactions due to in utero exposure to ciprofloxacin. No differences in the rates of prematurity, spontaneous abortions, or birth weight were seen in women exposed to ciprofloxacin during pregnancy.2,3 However, these small postmarketing epidemiology studies, of which most experience is from short term, first trimester exposure, are insufficient to evaluate the risk for less common defects or to permit reliable and definitive conclusions regarding the safety of ciprofloxacin in pregnant women and their developing fetuses. Reproduction studies have been performed in rats and mice using oral doses up to 100 mg/kg (0.6 and 0.3 times the maximum daily human dose based upon body surface area, respectively) and have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to ciprofloxacin. In rabbits, oral ciprofloxacin dose levels of 30 and 100 mg/kg (approximately 0.4-and 1.3-times the highest recommended therapeutic dose based upon body surface area) produced gastrointestinal toxicity resulting in maternal weight loss and an increased incidence of abortion, but no teratogenicity was observed at either dose level. After intravenous administration of doses up to 20 mg/kg (approximately 0.3-times the highest recommended therapeutic dose based upon body surface area), no maternal toxicity was produced and no embryotoxicity or teratogenicity was observed. Nursing Mothers Ciprofloxacin is excreted in human milk. The amount of ciprofloxacin absorbed by the nursing infant is unknown. Because of the potential risk of serious adverse reactions (including articular damage) in infants nursing from mothers taking CIPRO IV, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother. Pediatric Use Although effective in clinical trials, CIPRO IV is not a drug of first choice in the pediatric population due to an increased incidence of adverse reactions compared to controls. Quinolones, including CIPRO IV, cause arthropathy in juvenile animals [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS and Nonclinical Toxicology]. Complicated Urinary Tract Infection and Pyelonephritis CIPRO IV is indicated for the treatment of cUTI and pyelonephritis due to Escherichia coli in pediatric patients 1 to 17 years of age. Although effective in clinical trials, CIPRO IV is not a drug of first choice in the pediatric population due to an increased incidence of adverse reactions compared to the controls, including events related to joints and/or surrounding tissues. [See ADVERSE REACTIONS and Clinical Studies] Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure) CIPRO IV is indicated in pediatric patients from birth to 17 years of age for inhalational anthrax (postexposure). The risk-benefit assessment indicates that administration of ciprofloxacin to pediatric patients is appropriate [see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and Clinical Studies]. Plague CIPRO IV is indicated in pediatric patients from birth to 17 years of age, for treatment of plague, including pneumonic and septicemic plague due to Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) and prophylaxis for plague. Efficacy studies of CIPRO IV could not be conducted in humans with pneumonic plague for feasibility reasons. Therefore, approval of this indication was based on an efficacy study conducted in animals. The risk-benefit assessment indicates that administration of CIPRO to pediatric patients is appropriate. [See INDICATIONS AND USAGE, DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION, and Clinical Studies] Geriatric Use Geriatric patients are at increased risk for developing severe tendon disorders including tendon rupture when being treated with a fluoroquinolone such as CIPRO IV. This risk is further increased in patients receiving concomitant corticosteroid therapy. Tendinitis or tendon rupture can involve the Achilles, hand, shoulder, or other tendon sites and can occur during or after completion of therapy; cases occurring up to several months after fluoroquinolone treatment have been reported. Caution should be used when prescribing CIPRO IV to elderly patients especially those on corticosteroids. Patients should be informed of this potential adverse reaction and advised to discontinue CIPRO and contact their healthcare provider if any symptoms of tendinitis or tendon rupture occur. [See BOXED WARNING, WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS, and ADVERSE REACTIONS] In a retrospective analysis of 23 multiple-dose controlled clinical trials of CIPRO encompassing over 3500 ciprofloxacin-treated patients, 25% of patients were greater than or equal to 65 years of age and 10% were greater than or equal to 75 years of age. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals on any drug therapy cannot be ruled out. Ciprofloxacin is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. No alteration of dosage is necessary for patients greater than 65 years of age with normal renal function. However, since some older individuals experience reduced renal function by virtue of their advanced age, care should be taken in dose selection for elderly patients, and renal function monitoring may be useful in these patients. [See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY] In general, elderly patients may be more susceptible to drug-associated effects on the QT interval. Therefore, precaution should be taken when using CIPRO IV with concomitant drugs that can result in prolongation of the QT interval (for example, class IA or class III antiarrhythmics) or in patients with risk factors for torsade de pointes (for example, known QT prolongation, uncorrected hypokalemia). [See WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS] Renal Impairment Ciprofloxacin is eliminated primarily by renal excretion; however, the drug is also metabolized and partially cleared through the biliary system of the liver and through the intestine. These alternative pathways of drug elimination appear to compensate for the reduced renal excretion in patients with renal impairment. Nonetheless, some modification of dosage is recommended, particularly for patients with severe renal dysfunction. [See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY] Hepatic Impairment In preliminary studies in patients with stable chronic liver cirrhosis, no significant changes in ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics have been observed. The pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin in patients with acute hepatic insufficiency, have not been studied. REFERENCES 2. Friedman J, Polifka J. Teratogenic effects of drugs: a resource for clinicians (TERIS). Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000:149-195. 3. Loebstein R, Addis A, Ho E, et al. Pregnancy outcome following gestational exposure to fluoroquinolones: a multicenter prospective controlled study. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998;42(6):1336-1339. 4. Schaefer C, Amoura-Elefant E, Vial T, et al. Pregnancy outcome after prenatal quinolone exposure. Evaluation of a case registry of the European network of teratology information services (ENTIS). Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1996;69:83-89. Last reviewed on RxList: 4/13/2015
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.