Drug: Duagen

Duagen (dutasteride) is a synthetic 4-azasteroid compound that is a selective inhibitor of both the type 1 and type 2 isoforms of steroid 5α-reductase (5AR), an intracellular enzyme that converts testosterone to 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT).
Dutasteride is chemically designated as (5α, 17β)-N-{2, 5 bis(trifluoromethyl) phenyl}-3-oxo-4-azaandrost-l-ene-17-carboxamide. The empirical formula of dutasteride is C27H30F6N2O2, representing a molecular weight of 528.5.
Dutasteride is a white to pale yellow powder with a melting point of 242 to 250°C. It is soluble in ethanol (44 mg/mL), methanol (64 mg/mL) and polyethylene glycol 400 (3 mg/mL), but it is insoluble in water.
Duagen (dutasteride) Soft Gelatin Capsules for oral administration contain 0.5 mg of the active ingredient dutasteride in yellow capsules with red print. Each capsule contains 0.5 mg dutasteride dissolved in a mixture of mono-di-glycerides of caprylic/capric acid and butylated hydroxytoluene. The inactive excipients in the capsule shell are gelatin (from certified BSE-free bovine sources), glycerin, and ferric oxide (yellow). The soft gelatin capsules are printed with edible red ink.Last reviewed on RxList: 12/8/2004
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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Adverse reactions were generally mild and transient. The most common adverse events leading to withdrawal in both treatment groups were associated with the reproductive system.
The data described below reflect exposure to Duagen (dutasteride) in 2166 male subjects, including 1772 exposed for one year. Over 4300 male subjects with BPH were randomly assigned to receive placebo or 0.5-mg daily doses of Duagen (dutasteride) in three identical, placebo-controlled Phase in treatment studies. The population was aged 47 to 94 years (mean age 66 years) and greater than 90% Caucasian. A total of 267 subjects (6% of each treatment group) were withdrawn from the studies due to adverse experiences, usually associated with the reproductive system. Withdrawals due to adverse events considered by the investigator to have a reasonable possibility of being caused by the study medication occurred in 3% of the subjects receiving Duagen (dutasteride) and in 2% of the subjects receiving placebo. Table 1 summarizes clinical adverse reactions that were reported by the investigator as drug-related in at least 1% of subjects receiving Duagen (dutasteride) and at a higher incidence than subjects receiving placebo.
Table 1: Drug-related Adverse Events* Reported in >1% Subjects and More Frequently in the
Duagen (dutasteride) Group than the Placebo Group Pivotal Studies Pooled
Adverse Event

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The recommended dose of Duagen (dutasteride) is 1 capsule (0.5 mg) taken orally once a day. The capsules should be swallowed
whole. Duagen (dutasteride) may be administered with or without food.
No dosage adjustment is necessary for subjects with renal impairment or for the elderly (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Pharmacokinetics: Geriatric and Renal Impairment). Due to the absence of data in patients with hepatic impairment, no dosage recommendation can be made (see PRECAUTIONS: General).

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Caution should be used in administering dutasteride to patients taking potent, chronic CYP3A4 inhibitors (see PRECAUTIONS: Use with Potent CYP3A4 Inhibitors).
Dutasteride does not inhibit the in vitro metabolism of model substrates for the major human cytochrome P450 isoenzymes (CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP3A4) at a concentration of 1000 ng/mL, 25 times greater than steady-state serum concentrations in humans. In vitro studies demonstrate that dutasteride does not displace warfarin, diazepam, or phenytoin from plasma protein binding sites, nor do these model compounds displace dutasteride.
Digoxin: In a study of 20 healthy volunteers, Duagen (dutasteride) did not alter the steady-state pharmacokinetics of digoxin when administered concomitantly at a dose of 0.5 mg/day for 3 weeks.
Warfarin: In a study of 23 healthy volunteers, 3 weeks of treatment with Duagen (dutasteride) 0.5 mg/day did not alter the steady-state pharmacokinetics of the S- or R-warfarin isomers or alter the effect of warfarin on prothrombin time when administered with warfarin.
Alpha adrenergic blocking agents: In a single sequence, cross-over study in healthy volunteers, the administration of tamsulosin or terazosin in combination with Duagen (dutasteride) had no effect on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of either alpha adrenergic blocker. The percent change in DHT concentrations was similar for Duagen (dutasteride) alone compared with the combination treatment.
Calcium Channel Antagonists: In a population PK analysis, a decrease in clearance of dutasteride was noted when co-administered with the CYP3A4 inhibitors verapamil (-37%, n = 6) and diltiazem (-44%, n = 5). In contrast, no decrease in clearance was seen when amlodipine, another calcium channel antagonist that is not a CYP34A inhibitor, was co-administered with dutasteride (+7%, n = 4).
Cholestyramine: Administration of a single 5-mg dose of Duagen (dutasteride) followed 1 hour later by 12 g cholestyramine did not affect the relative bioavailability of dutasteride in 12 normal volunteers.
Other Concomitant Therapy: Although specific interaction studies were not performed with other compounds, approximately 90% of the subjects in the 3 Phase 111 pivotal efficacy studies receiving Duagen (dutasteride) were taking other medications concomitantly. No clinically significant adverse interactions could be attributed to the combination of Duagen (dutasteride) and concurrent therapy when Duagen (dutasteride) was co-administered with anti-hyperlipidemics, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, beta-adrenergic blocking agents, calcium channel blockers, corticosteroids, diuretics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), phosphodiesterase Type V inhibitors, and quinolone antibiotics.
Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions: Effects on PSA: PSA levels generally decrease in patients treated with Duagen (dutasteride) as the prostate volume decreases. In approximately one-half of the subjects, a 20% decrease in PSA is seen within the first month of therapy. After 6 months of therapy, PSA levels stabilize to a new baseline that is approximately 50% of the pre-treatment value. Results of subjects treated with Duagen (dutasteride) for up to two years indicate this 50% reduction in PSA is maintained. Therefore, a new baseline PSA concentration should be established after 3 to 6 months of treatment with Duagen (see PRECAUTIONS: Effects on PSA and Prostate Cancer Detection). Hormone Levels: In healthy volunteers, 52 weeks of treatment with dutasteride 0.5 mg/day (n = 26) resulted in no clinically significant change compared with placebo (n = 23) in sex hormone binding globulin, estradiol, luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, thyroxine (free T4), and dehydroepiandrosterone. Statistically significant, baseline-adjusted mean increases compared with placebo were observed for total testosterone at 8 weeks (97.1 ng/dL, p0.05 mg/kg/day in rats (96%), potentially reducing the amount of dutasteride available for vaginal absorption.
In an embryo-fetal development study in female rats, oral administration of dutasteride at doses of 0.05, 2.5, 12.5, and 30 mg/kg/day resulted in feminization of male fetuses (decreased anogenital distance) and male offspring (nipple development, hypospadias, and distended preputial glands) at all doses (0.07- to 111-fold the expected male clinical exposure). An increase in stillborn pups was observed at 30 mg/kg/day, and reduced fetal body weight was observed at doses >2.5 mg/kg/day (15- to 111-fold the expected clinical exposure). Increased incidences of skeletal variations considered to be delays in ossification associated with reduced body weight were observed at doses of 12.5 and 30 mg/kg/day (56- to 111-fold the expected clinical exposure).
In an oral pre- and post natal development study in rats, dutasteride doses of 0.05, 2.5, 12.5, or 30 mg/kg/day were administered. Unequivocal evidence of feminization of the genitalia (i.e., decreased anogenital distance, increased incidence of hypospadias, nipple development) of Fl generation male offspring occurred at doses >2.5 mg/kg/day (14- to 90-fold the expected clinical exposure in men). At a daily dose of 0.05 mg/kg/day (0.05-fold the expected clinical exposure), evidence of feminization was limited to a small, but statistically significant, decrease in anogenital distance. Doses of 2.5 to 30 mg/kg/day resulted in prolonged gestation in the parental females and a decrease in time to vaginal patency for female offspring and decrease prostate and seminal vesicle weights in male offspring. Effects on newborn startle response were noted at doses greater than or equal to 12.5 mg/kg/day. Increased stillbirths were noted at 30 mg/kg/day.
Feminization of male fetuses is an expected physiological consequence of inhibition of the conversion of testosterone to DHT by 5α-reductase inhibitors. These results are similar to observations in male infants with genetic 5α-reductase deficiency.
In the rabbit, embryo-fetal study doses of 30, 100, and 200 mg/kg (28- to 93-fold the expected clinical exposure in men) were administered orally on days 7 to 29 of pregnancy to encompass the late period of external genitalia development, Histological evaluation of the genital papilla of fetuses revealed evidence of feminization of the male fetus at all doses. A second embryo-fetal study in rabbits at doses of 0.05, 0.4, 3.0, and 30 mg/kg/day (0.3- to 53-fold the expected clinical exposure) also produced evidence of feminization of the genitalia in male fetuses at all doses. It is not known whether rabbits or rhesus monkeys produce any of the major human metabolites. Nursing Mothers: Duagen (dutasteride) is not indicated for use in women. It is not known whether dutasteride is excreted in human milk.
Pediatric Use: Duagen (dutasteride) is not indicated for use in the pediatric population. Safety and effectiveness in the pediatric population have not been established.
Geriatric Use: Of 2166 male subjects treated with Duagen (dutasteride) in three clinical studies, 60% were 65 and over and 15% were 75 and over. No overall differences in safety or efficacy were observed between these subjects and younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients.Last reviewed on RxList: 12/8/2004
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Duagen (dutasteride) is indicated for the treatment of symptomatic benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) in men with an enlarged prostate gland.

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Duagen (dutasteride) is contraindicated for use in women and children. Duagen (dutasteride) is contraindicated for patients with known hypersensitivity to dutasteride, other 5α-reductase inhibitors, or any component of the preparation.Last reviewed on RxList: 12/8/2004
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

In volunteer studies, single doses of dutasteride up to 40 mg (80 times the therapeutic dose) for 7 days have been administered without adverse events or significant safety concerns. In clinical studies, doses of 5 mg daily have been administered to subjects for 6 months with no additional adverse effects to those seen at therapeutic doses of 0.5 mg.
There is no specific antidote for dutasteride. Therefore, in cases of suspected overdosage symptomatic and supportive treatment should be given as appropriate, taking the long half-life of dutasteride into consideration.

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Duagen (dutasteride) Soft Gelatin Capsules 0.5 mg are oblong, opaque, dull yellow, gelatin capsules imprinted with "GX CE2" in red ink on one side packaged in bottles of 100 (NDC 0173-0712-00) with child-resistant closures and unit dose blister packs of 70 capsules (NDC 0173-0712-01).
Storage and Handling: Store at 25°C (77°F); excursions permitted to 15-30°C (59-86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].
Dutasteride is absorbed through the skin. Duagen (dutasteride) Soft Gelatin capsules should not be handled by women who are pregnant or who may become pregnant because of the potential for absorption of dutasteride and the subsequent potential risk to a developing male fetus (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY: Pharmacokinetics, WARNINGS: Exposure of Women†?Risk to Male Fetus, and PRECAUTIONS: Information For Patients and Pregnancy).
Manufactured by:
RP Scherer Beinheim, France for
GlaxoSmithKline
GlaxoSmithKline
Research Triangle Park, NC 27709
©2001 ,GlaxoSmithKline All rights reserved.
(Updated Sep 05, 2003)
Last reviewed on RxList: 12/8/2004
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

General: Lower urinary tract symptoms of BPH can be indicative of other urological diseases, including prostate cancer. Patients should be assessed to rule out other urological diseases prior to treatment with Duagen (dutasteride) . Patients with a large residual urinary volume and/or severely diminished urinary flow may not be good candidates for 5α-reductase inhibitor therapy and should be carefully monitored for obstructive uropathy.
Blood Donation: Men being treated with dutasteride should not donate blood until at least 6 months have passed following their last dose. The purpose of this deferred period is to prevent administration of dutasteride to a pregnant female transfusion recipient.
Use in Hepatic Impairment: The effect of hepatic impairment on dutasteride pharmacokinetics has not been studied. Because dutasteride is extensively metabolized and has a half-life of approximately 5 weeks at steady state, caution should be used in the administration of dutasteride to patients with liver disease.
Use with Potent CYP3A4 Inhibitors: Although dutasteride is extensively metabolized, no metabolically-based drug interaction studies have been conducted. The effect of potent CYP3A4 inhibitors has not been studied. Because of the potential for drug-drug interactions, care should be taken when administering dutasteride to patients taking potent, chronic CYP3A4 enzyme inhibitors (e.g., ritonavir).
Effects on PSA and Prostate Cancer Detection: Digital rectal examinations, as well as other evaluations for prostate cancer, should be performed on patients with BPH prior to initiating therapy with Duagen and periodically thereafter.
Dutasteride reduces total serum PSA concentration by approximately 40% following 3 months of treatment and 50% following 6 and 12 months of treatment. This decrease is predictable over the entire range of PSA values, although it may vary in individual patients. Therefore, for interpretation of serial PSAs in a man taking Duagen (dutasteride) , a new baseline PSA concentration should be established after 3 to 6 months of treatment, and this new value should be used to assess potentially cancer-related changes in PSA. To interpret an isolated PSA value in a man treated with Duagen (dutasteride) for 6 months or more, the PSA value should be doubled for comparison with normal values in untreated men. Information for Patients Physicians should instruct their patients to read the Information for Patient leaflet before starting therapy with Duagen (dutasteride) and to reread it upon prescription renewal for new information regarding the use of Duagen (dutasteride) .
Duagen (dutasteride) Soft Gelatin Capsules should not be handled by a woman who is pregnant or who may become pregnant because of the potential for absorption of dutasteride and the subsequent potential risk to a developing male fetus (see CONTRAINDICATIONS, and WARNINGS: Exposure Of Women†?Risk To Male Fetus).
Physicians should inform patients that ejaculate volume might be decreased in some patients durine treatment with Duagen (dutasteride) . This decrease does not appear to interfere with normal sexual function. In clinical trials, impotence and decreased libido, considered by the investigator to be drug-related, occurred in a small number of patients treated with Duagen (dutasteride) or placebo (5% and 3%, respectively, see ADVERSE REACTIONS).
Men treated with dutasteride should not donate blood until at least 6 months have passed following their last dose to prevent pregnant women from receiving dutasteride through blood transfusion (see PRECAUTIONS: Blood Donation). Last reviewed on RxList: 12/8/2004
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

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