Drug: Aridol

D-mannitol (referred to throughout as mannitol), the active ingredient in ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) is a hexahydric alcohol, that is a sugar alcohol, with the following chemical name (2R,3R,4R,5R)-hexane-1,2,3,4,5,6­hexol and chemical structure: Mannitol is a white or almost white crystalline powder of free-flowing granules with an empirical formula of C6H14O6 and molecular weight of 182.2. Mannitol is freely soluble in water, and very slightly soluble in alcohol. Mannitol shows polymorphism. The ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) bronchial challenge test kit contains one single patient use dry powder inhaler and 3 consecutively numbered foil blister packs containing a total of 19 capsules of mannitol for oral inhalation. All except the 0 mg printed hard gelatin capsules contain dry powder mannitol for oral inhalation. The accompanying dry powder inhaler is a plastic device used for inhaling the capsules. All doses are to be administered using the same device supplied with each kit without washing or sterilizing the device at anytime during the test. To use the delivery system, a mannitol capsule is placed in the well of the inhaler, and the capsule is pierced by pressing and releasing the buttons on the side of the device. The mannitol dry powder is dispersed into the air stream when the patient inhales rapidly and deeply through the mouthpiece. There are no inactive ingredients in the mannitol capsules supplied with the ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) bronchial challenge test kit. The 0 mg capsule and the bodies of the 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg capsules are clear. The white caps (5 mg) contain titanium dioxide. The yellow caps (10 mg) contain titanium dioxide and yellow iron oxide. The pink caps (20 mg) and red caps (40 mg) contain titanium dioxide and red iron dioxide. The inhaler is a plastic device used for administering mannitol to the lungs. The amount of drug delivered to the lung will depend on patient factors, such as inspiratory flow rate and inspiratory time. Under standardized in vitro testing at a fixed flow rate of 60 L/min for 2 seconds, the delivered dose from the inhaler from each of the 5, 10, 20 and 40 mg capsules is approximately 3.4, 7.7, 16.5 and 34.1 mg, respectively. Peak inspiratory flow rates (PIFR) achievable through the inhaler were evaluated in healthy and asthmatic individuals ranging from 7 to 65 years of age and with % FEV1 of predicted ranging from 67% to 123%. PIFR achieved in the study was at least 70.8 L/min in all subjects assessed. The mean PIFR was 118.2 L/min and approximately ninety percent of each population studied generated a PIFR through the device exceeding 90 L/min. Last reviewed on RxList: 10/29/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

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Mannitol, the active ingredient in ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) , is a sugar alcohol that may cause severe bronchospasm in susceptible subjects [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS]. Clinical Trials Experience Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice. The safety population for the ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) bronchial challenge test consisted of 1,082 subjects (577 females and 505 males) including patients with asthma, symptoms suggestive of asthma, and healthy individuals from 6 to 83 years of age who participated in the two clinical trials (Studies 1 and 2). The racial distribution of subjects was 84% Caucasian, 5 % Asian, 4 % Black, and 7 % Other. Children and adolescents comprised 23% of the total study population with 118 children aged 6-11 years and 128 adolescents aged 12-17 years. Adverse reactions were reported at the time of the testing procedure and for one day thereafter. No serious adverse reactions were reported following bronchial challenge testing with ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) in either trial. Five adult subjects (0.6%) discontinued from the studies within a day following bronchial challenge testing with ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) because of cough, decreased lung function, feeling jittery, sore throat, and throat irritation. One adult subject (0.3%) discontinued following the methacholine bronchial challenge test because of dizziness. One pediatric subject (0.4%) discontinued from the studies within a day following bronchial challenge testing with ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) because of retching. Table 2 displays the combined common adverse reactions ( ≥ 1%) within a day after bronchial challenge testing with ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) or methacholine in the overall population for Studies 1 and 2. Table 2: Adverse reactions with an incidence ≥ 1% within a day after bronchial challenge testing (overall population, Studies 1 and 2 combined)
Adverse Reactions Treatment ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder)
(N=1046)
n (%) Methacholine Challenge
(N=420)
n (%) Headache 59 (6) 4 (1) Pharyngolaryngeal pain 25 (2) 0 Throat irritation 19 (2) 1 ( < 1) Nausea 19 (2) 0 Cough 17 (2) 8 (2) Rhinorrhea 16 (2) 0 Dyspnea 15 (1) 21 (5) Chest discomfort 13 (1) 18 (4) Wheezing 8 (1) 6 (1) Retching 6 (1) 0 Dizziness 5 (1) 13 (3) The maximum reduction in FEV1 following bronchial challenge testing with ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) was 46%, compared to 54% for exercise testing and 67% for the methacholine challenge. The incidences in decreases in FEV1 ≥ 30% and ≥ 60% following ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) , methacholine, and exercise challenges for Studies 1 and 2 is shown in Table 3. Table 3: Incidence of decreases in FEV1 ≥ 30% or ≥ 60% (overall population, Studies 1 and 2)
Challenge No. Exposed N (%) with Fall in FEV1 ≥ 30% N (%) with Fall in FEV1 ≥ 60% Study 1   Exercise 435 27 (6%) 0   Methacholine 420 51 (12%) 3 (1%)   ARIDOL 419 3 (1%) 0 Study 2   ARIDOL asthmatics 536 23 (4%) 0   ARIDOL Non-asthmatics 91 0 0 There were no differences in the incidence of adverse reactions based on gender or race. The clinical trials did not include sufficient numbers of subjects 65 years of age and older to determine whether they respond differently compared to subjects below 65 years of age. Children and Adolescent Aged 6 to 17 Years Overall, the types and severities of adverse reactions in children were similar to those observed in the adult population. As in the adult population, the adverse reactions of pharyngolaryngeal pain, nausea, and headache were the more common with incidences of 4%, 3%, and 3%, respectively. There were no major differences in the types of adverse reactions observed in children 6-11 years of age compared to adolescents 12-17 years old. The decrease in FEV1 in children and adolescents who received the ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) bronchial challenge test was similar to that of the adult population with 5%, 15% and 9% of pediatric subjects who had bronchial challenge testing with ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) , methacholine and exercise, respectively, experiencing reduction in FEV1 ≥ 30%. No patient who had bronchial challenge testing with ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) or exercise had a decrease in FEV1 ≥ 60%, whereas, one adolescent patient (aged 12 years) who received methacholine had a decrease in FEV1 ≥ 60%. Post-Marketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified post approval outside the U.S. of the ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) bronchial challenge test kit: cough, gagging, wheeze, and decreased forced expiratory volume. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. Read the Aridol (mannitol inhalation powder) Side Effects Center for a complete guide to possible side effectsLearn More »

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Basic Dosing Information ARIDOL is a test kit containing the required capsules of dry powder mannitol for oral inhalation in graduated doses with the supplied single patient use inhaler necessary to perform one bronchial challenge test. The inhaler should be discarded after use. Do not swallow ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) capsules. The airway response to bronchial challenge testing with ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) is measured using forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1). Prior to bronchial challenge testing with ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) , standard spirometry should be performed and the reproducibility of the resting FEV1 established. An overview of the testing procedure can be found below. See the ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) bronchial challenge test instructions for complete instructions on the dosing and spirometry procedures.
  1. A nose clip may be used if preferred. If so, apply nose clip to the subject and direct the subject to breathe through the mouth
  2. Insert 0 mg capsule into inhalation device. Puncture capsule by depressing buttons on side of device slowly, and once only (a second puncture may fragment the capsules)
  3. The patient should exhale completely, before inhaling from device in a controlled rapid deep inspiration
  4. At the end of deep inspiration, start 60 second timer, subject should hold breath for 5 seconds and exhale through mouth before removal of nose clip
  5. At the end of 60 seconds, measure the FEV1 in duplicate (the measurement after inhaling the 0 mg capsule is the baseline FEV1)
  6. Repeat steps a-e following the mannitol capsule dose steps from Table 1 below until the patient has a positive response or 635 mg of mannitol has been administered (negative test)
Table 1: Mannitol dose steps for bronchial challenge testing with ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder)
Dose # Dose mg Cumulative Dose mg Capsules per dose 1 0 0 1 2 5 5 1 3 10 15 1 4 20 35 1 5 40 75 1 6 80 155 2 x 40 mg 7 160 315 4 x 40 mg 8 160 475 4 x 40 mg 9 160 635 4 x 40 mg A positive response is achieved when the patient experiences a 15% reduction in FEV1 from (0 mg) baseline (or a 10% incremental reduction in FEV1 between consecutive doses). The test result is expressed as a PD15. Patients with either a positive response to bronchial challenge testing with ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) or significant respiratory symptoms should receive a standard dose of a short acting inhaled beta-agonist and monitored until fully recovered to within baseline.

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No formal drug-drug interaction studies were conducted with mannitol, the active ingredient in ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) .Last reviewed on RxList: 10/29/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Mannitol, the active ingredient in ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) , is a sugar alcohol indicated for the assessment of bronchial hyperresponsiveness in patients 6 years of age or older who do not have clinically apparent asthma. Limitations of Use ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) is not a stand alone test or a screening test for asthma. Bronchial challenge testing with ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) should be used only as part of a physician's

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ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) use is contraindicated in:
  • Patients with known hypersensitivity to mannitol or to the gelatin used to make the capsules
  • Patients with conditions that may be compromised by induced bronchospasm or repeated spirometry maneuvers. Some examples include: aortic or cerebral aneurysm, uncontrolled hypertension, recent myocardial infarction or cerebral vascular accident [see WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS].
Last reviewed on RxList: 10/29/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Mannitol, the active ingredient in ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) , is to be administered only by inhalation. Susceptible persons may experience excessive bronchospasm from an overdose. If such bronchospasm occurs, immediately administer a short acting inhaled beta-agonist and other medical treatments such as oxygen, as necessary.

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Dosage Forms And Strengths ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) is a bronchial challenge test kit. Each kit contains one, single patient use, dry powder inhaler device and 3 consecutively numbered foil blister packs containing a total of 19 capsules of mannitol for oral inhalation as described below: Blister pack “1”:
  • Marked 1 - 1 x empty clear capsule
  • Marked 2 - 1 x 5 mg white/clear capsule printed with 5 mg
  • Marked 3 - 1 x 10 mg yellow/clear capsule printed with 10 mg
  • Marked 4 - 1 x 20 mg pink/clear capsule printed with 20 mg
Blister pack “2”:
  • Marked 5 - 1 x 40 mg red/clear capsule printed with 40 mg
  • Marked 6 – 2 x 40 mg red/clear capsules printed with 40 mg
  • Marked 7 – 4 x 40 mg red/clear capsules printed with 40 mg
Blister pack “3”:
  • Marked 8 – 4 x 40 mg red/clear capsules printed with 40 mg
  • Marked 9 - 4 x 40 mg red/clear capsules printed with 40 mg
Storage And Handling ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) is a bronchial challenge test kit. Each kit contains one single patient use, dry powder inhaler device and 3 consecutively numbered foil blister packs containing a total of 19 capsules of mannitol for oral inhalation as described below: Blister pack “1”:
  • Marked 1 - 1 x empty clear capsule
  • Marked 2 - 1 x 5 mg white/clear capsule printed with 5 mg
  • Marked 3 - 1 x 10 mg yellow/clear capsule printed with 10 mg
  • Marked 4 - 1 x 20 mg pink/clear capsule printed with 20 mg
Blister pack “2”:
  • Marked 5 - 1 x 40 mg red/clear capsule printed with 40 mg
  • Marked 6 – 2 x 40 mg red/clear capsules printed with 40 mg
  • Marked 7 – 4 x 40 mg red/clear capsules printed with 40 mg
Blister pack “3”:
  • Marked 8 – 4 x 40 mg red/clear capsules printed with 40 mg
  • Marked 9 - 4 x 40 mg red/clear capsules printed with 40 mg
NDC-44178-XXX-XX ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) should be stored below 77°F (25°C) with excursions permitted between 59-86°F (15-30°C). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature]. Do not freeze. Do not refrigerate. The ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) bronchial challenge test should only be used with the provided inhaler. All remaining unused (opened and unopened) blister packs and the inhaler should be properly discarded at the completion of the test. Be sure to read the accompanying ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) bronchial challenge test kit instructions completely before test initiation. If you have any questions, contact the manufacturer support at 1-888-659-6396. Manufactured by: Pharmaxis Ltd, Unit 2, 10 Rodborough Rd, Frenchs Forest NSW 2086, AUSTRALIA. Manufactured for: Pharmaxis, Inc. One East Uwchlan Avenue, Suite 405, Exton, PA 19341. 1-888-659-6396. www.aridol (mannitol inhalation powder) .infoLast reviewed on RxList: 10/29/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

Severe Bronchospasm Mannitol, the active ingredient in ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) , acts as a bronchoconstrictor and may cause severe bronchospasm in susceptible patients. The test should only be conducted by trained professionals under the supervision of a physician familiar with all aspects of the bronchial challenge test and the management of acute bronchospasm. Patients should not be left unattended during the bronchial challenge test. Medications and equipment to treat severe bronchospasm must be present in the testing area. If a patient has a ≥ 10% reduction in FEV1 (from pre-challenge FEV1) on administration of the 0 mg capsule, the ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) bronchial challenge test should be discontinued and the patient should be given a dose of a short acting inhaled beta-agonist and monitored accordingly. Patients with either a positive response to bronchial challenge testing with ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) or significant respiratory symptoms should receive a short acting inhaled beta-agonist. Subjects should be monitored until fully recovered to within baseline. Subjects with Co-morbid Conditions Bronchial challenge testing with ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) should be performed with caution in patients with conditions that may increase sensitivity to the bronchoconstricting or other potential effects of ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) such as severe cough, ventilatory impairment, spirometry-induced bronchoconstriction, hemoptysis of unknown origin, pneumothorax, recent abdominal or thoracic surgery, recent intraocular surgery, unstable angina, or active upper or lower respiratory tract infection. Nonclinical Toxicology Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility In 2-year carcinogenicity studies in rats and mice mannitol did not show evidence of carcinogenicity at oral dietary concentrations up to 5% (or 7,500 mg/kg on a mg/kg basis). These doses were approximately 55 and 30 times the MRHDID, respectively, on a mg/m² basis. Mannitol tested negative in the following assays: bacterial gene mutation assay, in vitro mouse lymphoma assay, in vitro chromosomal aberration assay in WI-38 human cells, in vivo chromosomal aberration assay in rat bone marrow, in vivo dominant lethal assay in rats, and in vivo mouse micronucleus assay. The effect of inhaled mannitol on fertility has not been investigated. Use In Specific Populations Pregnancy Pregnancy Category C There are no adequate and well-controlled clinical studies of mannitol in pregnant women. Bronchial challenge testing with ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) should be performed during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus. Teratogenic Effects Mannitol was not teratogenic. Mannitol did not cause any embryofetal malformations when given to pregnant rats and mice at oral doses approximately 20 and 10 times the maximum recommended human daily inhalation dose (MRHDID) in adults, respectively, on a mg/m² basis [see Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology]. Labor and Delivery The effects of a possible hyperresponsiveness reaction on a mother or child during labor or delivery are not known, and therefore bronchial challenge testing with ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) should not be administered during labor or delivery. Nursing Mothers It is not known whether mannitol is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when mannitol is given to a nursing mother. Pediatric Use A total of 246 children and adolescents ages 6 to 17 years were studied in the two clinical trials [see Clinical Studies]. The mean and median maximum percentage reduction in FEV1 in patients with a positive ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) challenge test in children and adolescents 6 to 17 years of age (19% and 18%, respectively) showed no apparent difference compared to the adult population (19% and 18%, respectively). The safety profile of the ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) bronchial challenge test in children and adolescents 6 to 17 years of age was similar to the adult population in two clinical studies [see ADVERSE REACTIONS]. Bronchial challenge testing with ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) should not be performed in children less than 6 years of age due to their inability to provide reliable spirometric measurements. Geriatric Use There was insufficient number of subjects 50 years of age and older in the clinical program. Therefore, the safety and efficacy of bronchial challenge testing with ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) in the older population cannot be adequately assessed. It is unknown whether any differences in the safety and efficacy of bronchial challenge testing with ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) exist between subjects 50 years of age and older and younger subjects. Hepatic and Renal Impairment Formal pharmacokinetic studies with mannitol, the active ingredient, in ARIDOL (mannitol inhalation powder) , have not been conducted in patients with hepatic or renal impairment. However, an increase in systemic exposure of mannitol can be expected in patients with renal impairment based on the kidney being its primary route of elimination. Given parenterally, mannitol is used as an osmotic diuretic in a variety of clinical situations including acute renal failure where the osmotic effects of mannitol inhibit the rate of water re-absorption and maintain the rate of urine production. Last reviewed on RxList: 10/29/2010
This monograph has been modified to include the generic and brand name in many instances.

Source: http://www.rxlist.com

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